How to serve mathematics on the World Wide Web.

Toward a standard set of mathematical glyphs (character symbols)
This was reported to the Electronic Math Journals list as possibly a unique opportunity to influence various international standards bodies in presenting a complete set of mathematical and other scientific characters for inclusion in standard character sets. AMS deadline: November 20, 1998.

Setting Mathematics with SGML
Each version (e.g., version 2.0, version 2.3, ...) of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is an example of a markup language that is defined under the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) regime. See also our departmental pointers to information about SGML and XML and pointers to campus SGML and XML resources.

Setting Mathematics with SGML or XML via GELLMU
Bill Hammond's experimental design for using LaTeX-like markup to set mathematics under SGML as pre-processing for LaTeX, HTML, and possibly many other formats. Not for beginners.

W3C plans for marking up mathematics
Broad overview. Earlier material of the W3C HTML WG may be found at W3C.

W3C Recommendation: Mathematical Markup Language (Math ML)
MathML became a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommendation on 7 April 1998. It is recommended as the standard for mathematical notation in documents served on the web. It has evolved from earlier ideas for mathematical markup under a 1995 draft (expired) for version 3.0 of HTML. MathML falls under the umbrella of Extensible Markup Language (XML) XML regime, which itself is another W3C recommendation. The W3C testbed browser Amaya has MathML capability. Other articles and tutorials are available from

AsTeR -- T. V. Raman's Audio System for Technical Readings

Demos related to mathematics on the Web (1996)
Many of these old demos are for advanced users; actual implementation of the underlying ideas is unknown to the editor of this page.

Euromath Site in Ireland

Euromath Support Center

HyperTeX is a proposed extension of TeX that makes provision for active hyperlinks in what are otherwise TeX documents.

Hypermail archives on topics related to mathematics on the Web.

IBM's TechExplorer
A plug-in for web browsers capable of rendering much of TeX and LaTeX as well as MathML.

MINSE: a scheme for dealing with mathematics on the Web
An interesting idea somewhat off the beaten track.

Magliery's Posting in "" (1996)
Near the end of this article one finds mention of NCSA work on a modular framework for Web browsing. This is important to those, such as mathematicians, who have special needs. If general purpose browsing tools do not meet special needs, one only needs to change the relevant components to accommodate the special needs.

Search on "build" to find this part.

TeX-Related Information

TeX4ht: Eitan Gurari's TeX-to-HTML translator
This translator is driven mainly by TeX, the Program. When invoked with special macros, TeX inserts DVI "specials" in the compiled output (DVI file) that provide structural information for DVI processors. This structural information may be used for formatting compiled TeX or LaTeX markup in SGML languages such as HTML. "tex4ht" formats such an enhanced DVI in HTML.

This approach should be optimal for obtaining renditions of legacy TeX or LaTeX source documents in formats not derivable from ordinary DVI. (Original document markup in appropriate SGML languages will soon be optimal for new documents.)

Translating Mathematical Markup for Electronic Documents (OCLC)
This article by Keith Shafer and Roger Thompson of OCLC reports on OCLC work toward the translation of SGML-based mathematical markup to presentation format.

WebEQ is a system based on MathML for getting math in web pages for browsing by non-mathematical audiences before the general availability of XML-compliant browsers. This site includes documentation of the WebEQ input language, which is called WebTeX and which is convertible into MathML. It also has A Gentle Introduction to MathML.

tth: A Tex to HTML (v. 3.2) Translator

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