How to serve mathematics on the World Wide Web.

AsTeR -- T. V. Raman's Audio System for Technical Readings

Demos related to mathematics on the Web (1996)
Many of these old demos are for advanced users; actual implementation of the underlying ideas is unknown to the editor of this page.

Euromath Site in Ireland

Euromath Support Center

HEVEA: A LaTeX to HTML Translator

HyperTeX is a proposed extension of TeX that makes provision for active hyperlinks in what are otherwise TeX documents.

Hypermail archives on topics related to mathematics on the Web.

IBM's TechExplorer
A plug-in for web browsers capable of rendering much of TeX and LaTeX as well as MathML.

MINSE: a scheme for dealing with mathematics on the Web
An interesting idea somewhat off the beaten track.

Magliery's Posting in "" (1996)
Near the end of this article one finds mention of NCSA work on a modular framework for Web browsing. This is important to those, such as mathematicians, who have special needs. If general purpose browsing tools do not meet special needs, one only needs to change the relevant components to accommodate the special needs.

Search on "build" to find this part.

MathML at MIT
Basic information to help you get started with using MathML. Although intended primarily for an MIT audience and focused on tools and software used and supported at MIT, the information should be useful to a broader public.

MathML: Assembling the Pieces
Paul Gartside's demonstration site for the theme of MathML in Mozilla, formerly at Oxford.

MathML: Capturing and Presenting Math for the Web
By Michael Kohlhase of Carnegie Mellon. See especially the tutorial slides.

MathML: W3C plans for marking up mathematics
Broad overview. Earlier material of the W3C HTML WG might be found at W3C; this resource has recently been reported offline.

Digital documents research and development. Distributing free and open source Java software for scanned paper, PDF, HTML, UNIX manual pages, TeX DVI, and more. Associated with the Berkeley Digital Library Project.

Setting Mathematics with SGML
Each version (e.g., version 2.0, version 2.3, ...) of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is an example of a markup language that is defined under the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) regime. See also our departmental pointers to information about SGML and XML and pointers to campus SGML and XML resources.

Setting Mathematics with SGML or XML via GELLMU
Bill Hammond's experimental design for using LaTeX-like markup to set mathematics under SGML as pre-processing for LaTeX, HTML, and possibly many other formats. Not for beginners.

TTH: A Tex to HTML (v. 3.2) Translator

TeX-Related Information
Includes information about the use of Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF).

TeX4ht: Eitan Gurari's TeX-to-HTML translator
This translator is driven mainly by TeX, the Program. When invoked with special macros, TeX inserts DVI "specials" in the compiled output (DVI file) that provide structural information for DVI processors. This structural information may be used for formatting compiled TeX or LaTeX markup in SGML languages such as HTML. "tex4ht" formats such an enhanced DVI in HTML.

This approach should be optimal for obtaining renditions of legacy TeX or LaTeX source documents in formats not derivable from ordinary DVI. (Original document markup in appropriate SGML languages will soon be optimal for new documents.)

Toward a standard set of mathematical glyphs (character symbols)
This was reported to the Electronic Math Journals list as possibly a unique opportunity to influence various international standards bodies in presenting a complete set of mathematical and other scientific characters for inclusion in standard character sets. AMS deadline: November 20, 1998.

Translating Mathematical Markup for Electronic Documents (OCLC)
This article by Keith Shafer and Roger Thompson of OCLC reports on OCLC work toward the translation of SGML-based mathematical markup to presentation format.

W3C's Mathematical Markup Language (MathML)
MathML, Version 2.0, became a proposed recommendation of the World Wide Web Consortium on 8 January 2001. Version 1.0 had become a full recommendation on 7 April 1998. MathML is intended as the standard for mathematical notation in public documents served on the web with next-generation HTML. It has evolved from earlier ideas for mathematical markup under a 1995 draft (expired) for version 3.0 of HTML. MathML falls under the umbrella of Extensible Markup Language (XML), another regime, which itself is another W3C recommendation. There is a version of the Mozilla browser that displays MathML well. The W3C testbed browser Amaya also has MathML capability. Other articles and tutorials are available from

(This site may have been removed from the web.)
WebEQ is a system based on MathML for getting math in web pages for browsing by non-mathematical audiences before the general availability of XML-compliant browsers. This site includes documentation of the WebEQ input language, which is called WebTeX and which is convertible into MathML. It also has A Gentle Introduction to MathML.

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